Gender-Based Violence

UNHCR and partners work to prevent and respond to issues of gender-based violence (GBV). GBV is defined as “any harmful act that is perpetrated against a person’s will and that is based on socially ascribed (i.e. gender) differences between males and females. It includes acts that inflict physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering, threats of such acts, coercion and other deprivations of liberty.”  

GBV may include:  

  1. Rape: non-consensual penetration of the vagina, anus or mouth with penis or other body part. Also includes non-consensual penetration with an object.  
  1. Sexual assault: any form of non-consensual sexual contact that does not result in or include penetration. 
  1. Physical assault: physical violence that is not sexual violence in nature. 
  1. Forced marriage: marriage of an individual against her/his will. 
  1. Denial of resources: denial of rightful to economic resources/assets or livelihood opportunities, education, health or other social services. 
  1. Psychological/emotional abuse: infliction of mental or emotional pain or injury. 

Case management support for survivors 

Survivors of gender-based violence may be referred to support services with their consent.  This may include medical care, psychosocial support, temporary safe accommodation, assistance to report to police and in any legal process, and interventions to protect impacted children, if required.  


Engaging Men through Accountable Practice (EMAP) is a one-year program developed by the International Rescue Committee (IRC). UNHCR Indonesia launched the pilot implementation of the EMAP program in August 2023 as a part of its gender-based violence (GBV) prevention efforts. EMAP aims to engage refugee community members in understanding the root cause of GBV, with the goal of transforming men to become allies for women and girls through accountable practice. The EMAP program offers a safe space for female refugees to voice their concerns about violence against women and girls within the community, while also providing an opportunity for male refugees to rethink and reflect on the harmful beliefs that contribute to GBV. 

The implementation of the EMAP program is essential to help address vulnerabilities within the refugee community, complementing other GBV prevention programs.  Currently, EMAP is focused on a small refugee community in Bogor, with plans to extend the project to the greater Jakarta area in 2024. 

For further information regarding the EMAP program, please contact us at: [email protected] [Subject: EMAP]